History of the Schools of El Cajon Valley
El Cajon School District was formed October 4, 1870 and El Cajon's first school was held in a squatter's cottage near "The Corners" in El Cajon. It was located where the Knox Hotel was later built in 1876. The first teacher was Miss Bishop. Trustees in the year 1870 were Uri Hill, David Lamb, and J.W. Clark.
It was several years before El Cajon District built a regular school house. After the school's first location in the squatter's cottage, the school met in probably two other houses before the first real school building (referred to in those early years as "the big school") was built on North Magnolia near the present Park Avenue. The location of one of these houses which was used as a school was described as follows: "...in the old Gleason house which was near the corner of Washington and the old road east of the Shelton place." The other houses described as a meeting place for the school was a house located near Magnolia and Broadway at which place and time there were ten children in attendance.
It was in the latter part of the 1870's (probably 1878-79) that El Cajon built their first real school building which was located on North Magnolia near Park Avenue ( about where Long's Drug Store now stands). It was a two story building with one room downstairs and one room upstairs. At first, school was held in the downstairs room and the upstairs room was used as a community meeting place, Sunday School, etc. In the years 1883-86, the newly organized Presbyterian Church held their services in the upstairs room.
A picture taken on the front steps of the school in about 1887 or 1888 shows the teacher, Miss Polly Renney, with some of the school children. The children in the picture are (from left to right): Upper row--Kate Rea, Anna Asher, Sopha Miller, Mary Asher, Alva Morrison; Center row--Will Miller, Alpheus Asher, Allen Culbertson, Jay Asher, James Culbertson; Lower row--Harry Hill, Joe Miller and Charles Knox.
When this two room El Cajon School building became too small, it was sold to the Catholic Church, and the District built a one story school building in the same general location-(about where the DeFalco Market now stands)-in the area bounded by Magnolia, Wells, and Park. This newer El Cajon School, with a couple of annexes was occupied until 1921. That was soon after the Valley schools consolidated in 1920. The old buildings were abandoned and the new school was built on East Main Street near Lincoln. Two of the old buildings were moved to the new school yard on Main Street and used for a number of years for special services by the school. One was used as a cafeteria. That first old El Cajon School (the two story building) which the St. Mary's Catholic Church had bought and used as their church building, burned down in 1917.
The following are bits of information about the early El Cajon School and some of its teachers. The list of teachers is far from complete and the exact years of teaching service for many of those mentioned has not yet been ascertained.
Most of the early teachers were from the East, seeking for health, and most of them in the earlier days boarded at the Uri Hill home. Mr. Uri Hill and Judge William Ogden were trustees and they endeavored to keep the standard of teachers high. By engaging these eastern visitors, they benefited both parties to the contracts ; helping them to restore health and also providing opportunities for the pupils. For a number of years the school was a one teacher school.
Miss Bishop who was El Cajon's first school teacher in the year 1970-1871 was a specialist in History and Literature. It is believed that the school opened with six pupils. Della and Clayton Hill, children of Uri and Renette Hill were two of these pupils. (Claydelle Street in El Cajon was named for Clayton and Della Hill by their parents whose 200 acre ranch and home, "The Claydelle", was in the area of the valley.)
Names of some of the other teachers who taught in those early years, between 1870 and 1880 were: George Welch, who straightened out discipline ; Prof. Lee, who not only taught school but aided the people in their legal problems ; Prof. Jamieson who was a fine mathematician and who also during his 1879-80 year of teaching, prepared two of the young girls. Florence Ogden and Della Hill, for the Examination for Teachers. These examinations were given each June by the County Supt. of Schools.
In 1876, there were 20 pupils in El Cajon School taught by Ada Lucas.
In 1877, the school was taught by Lydia Jane Dickenson.
In 1883, Miss Bertie Bush was the teacher. Josephine Asher (Vacher) was in her class that year as an 8th grade student.
In about 1887-88, Miss Polly Renney was the teacher.
In 1889, the school was taught by Miss Merrill.
An item appearing in the El Cajon Star Newspaper--June 1, 1889, tells that "The trustees ordered a 200 pound bell for the El Cajon School."
In 1892, Miss Isabel Lisco was the teacher.
Other teachers listed as teaching before the turn of the century were Jennie Otis, Cora Lamb, Mary Renney and Josephine Asher.
Della Hill, after passing the Examination for Teachers in June 1880 with the highest grades in the class, taught in the year 1880-81 in the school for Lawson and Lyons Valley east of Jamul.
In 1912, the faculty of the El Cajon School included J.R. Creech, Principal; Miss C.M. Balch and Miss Anne Culbertson. In 1913, Miss Mary Jane Kennedy started teaching at the El Cajon School with 4 teachers and 200 students. She served as a teaching Principal the last five years before retiring to become Mrs. William J. Collard in 1921.
In 1920, the faculty included Mary J. Kennedy, Myrtle Sears, Mrs. Mariel Miller, and Mrs. Josephine Asher Vacher.
Before the turn of the century and for some time afterward, school transportation was a problem. Children had to get to school by foot or horseback. Hence, the valley and surrounding territory became dotted with one room school houses; and in some instances, other school districts were formed which pulled students from the area originally served by El Cajon. In 1875, Alpine District was formed and Sweetwater District in 1876. Cowles School (later called Santee) was started in 1891 and La Mesa in 1894.
The Meridian School District was formed in the latter part of the year 1887. An old school district record book of "minutes" show that Julia A. Kellogg was employed January 13, 1888 to teach the district school for three more months at a salary of $50 per month. By April 28, 1888 she had resigned and T. A. Ross was employed to teach the district school for the remaining five weeks at a rate of $60 per month. Meridian School was first held in a tiny one room building (about 14' x 20') on the east side of Meridian Road (now Third Street) and just north of Highway 80. This location was near the present intersection of Third Street and Naranca Street in the Bostonia area.
In August 1888, B. B. Warren was employed to teach for eight months beginning with September 10, 1888 at a salary of $70 per month but his service terminated in December 1888 and T. A. Ross was again employed to teach for the remaining seventeen weeks at salary of $70 per month.
Samuel C. Hall, one of the sons of Mr. And Mrs. J. P. R. Hall wrote from Laguna Beach, California (September 25, 1967) that he was one of the students in that little one room Meridian School. The J. P. R. Hall family came to El Cajon Valley in 1886 and developed a forty acre ranch along Madison Avenue between the present. Third Street and Fourth Street. The Hall children had to walk to the El Cajon School until the Meridian District was formed.
In December 1888, the trustees "voted to erect a two-story building having two rooms 30' x 40' and with a hall and tower similar to the general design of the school at Del Mar." They erected this school building on the west side of Meridian Road and just across the street from the original little one-room schoolhouse.
The name "Meridian" was chosen for the road and also for the school because Meridian Road is on one of the survey meridians used in describing property boundaries.
This two room, two story Meridian School building was completed in the summer of 1889 and the opening enrollment was thirty students. In September 1892, the school term opened with Miss Neylan as teacher and an expected enrollment of about forty students.
In August 1893, the El Cajon Union High School District was formed by trustees of El Cajon, Meridian, Cowles and Lakeside School Districts. The second floor or the Meridian School became their meeting place. The El Cajon Union High School was held in the upstairs of the Meridian School until 1908, at which time a high school building was constructed at Third and Broadway--"just up the road from the Meridian School."
From 1908-1921 Meridian Grammar School made full use of their building. The lower grades met downstairs and the upper grades met upstairs. In 1920 Meridian District, along with other small school districts in the area, joined with El Cajon in forming the Cajon Valley Union School District. After the new El Cajon School was completed in 1921, the Meridian school was no longer used and it was finally torn down.
Mrs. Mabel Farley Adams was the last principal at the Meridian School. She was the principal for three or four years. After the school consolidation she continued teaching in the El Cajon School until her retirement in 1941.
Miss Lillian French taught in this old Meridian School. When the school consolidated in 1920-1921, she also started teaching in the El Cajon School until she retired in 1949 after nearly forty years of teaching.
was a one room school which was built east of Los Coches Road between Highway 80 and Lakeside. It was later used as a residence.
El Capitan School
was built on the high bank on the right of Highway 80 about one and a half miles east of Flinn Springs. It was later used as a residence. Finally the house has disappeared.
in Jamacha Valley was another of our early schools. It was later used as a club house and community hall.
was built on Jamacha road in 1894. It ran an attendance of 15 or 20 students. In 1920 when the schools consolidated, Hillsdale School closed and the students moved to the new El Cajon School. From then until the end of World War II the school building was used as a meeting place for such groups as the 4H Club, The County Farm Bureau and a church congregation.
453 After repeated vandalism, and with rising taxes, and when joint efforts of the Hillsdale Community Club and the Native Sons failed to find someone willing to move and restore the old landmark, it was decided to destroy the structure as it was considered a fire hazard.
Miss Theodora Birdseye (Mrs. John Ballantyne) was the first teacher at the Hillsdale School in 1894. It was her first teaching assignment. She rode horseback to school to teach. Her salary was $60 per month.
Miss Dorothy Chase (Mrs. Harold Ross), granddaughter of the Uri Hill family who were early settlers in El Cajon, was the teacher at Hillsdale School in its last year of service as a school (1919-1920). Incidentally, it was her first teaching assignment also.
Cajon Valley Union School District
-Formed in 1920-
In the period of 50 years from 1870 to 1920, the number of pupils in the valley had increased from 6 to 300; and it was in 1920 that the several small schools were consolidated into a union elementary district.
People thought it would be better to have one larger school. Mrs. Collard was one of those persons believing that unification of the several small school districts of El Cajon Valley would be best for the education of students. Too, transportation of students was no longer the problem it had been in those earlier years. Mrs. Collard was instrumental in calling a unification meeting which brought about the formation of the
Cajon Valley Union School District
and the construction of the new El Cajon School building on East Main Street which housed all of El Cajon Valley's elementary school students for the next 20 years. Mrs. Eva Stuver was another person particularly active in this consolidation movement.
Mr. Allen was Principal in the year 1921-22 which was the first year in the new El Cajon School on Main Street. That year Mrs. Josephine Asher Vacher, the first grade teacher, had 92 pupils in her class--46 boys and 46 girls. The next year (1922-23) she had 80 pupils--45 boys and 35 girls.
The first Parent-Teacher Association in Cajon Valley School District was formed at the El Cajon School on January 29, 1922. The slogan was "Pull Together Always."
Mr. Len Barry was a Principal in the El Cajon School during the 1920's.
Mr. John Montgomery's long career as Principal of the El Cajon School and Superintendent of the Cajon Valley Union School District began in September 1930. At that time, he joined the El Cajon School faculty as a teacher. He served as Superintendent of the district for 21 years, from 1934 to 1955 at which time he resigned as Superintendent and is now serving as principal of the John Ballantyne School. Superintendents following him have been Dr. Jens Hutchens, Dr. Peter Bancroft, Dr. M. Ted Dixon, and the present Superintendent, Dr. Mitchell L. Gilbert.
By 1941, the student enrollment had well outgrown the buildings on the El Cajon School yard. A number of additions had been made during the twenty years since it had been built. Enrollment had increased to 850 pupils. A new school was planned to lighten the load. This new school was...
The Bostonia School
... It opened on December 8, 1941 with six class rooms, five teachers and a teaching principal, Mrs. Irene Vita. More rooms and an auditorium were added later.
School enrollment was climbing rapidly. The influx of population was due to military people who liked the area and the community. By 1950, the attendance had grown to better than 2,000 children.
was built in 1948. Mrs. Margaret Graffam was the first principal. Additional rooms and a multipurpose room were added later.
was built at Third and Washington Streets in 1949. This school is located about a mile farther south on Third Street than the place where the old Meridian School had stood. Additional rooms and a multipurpose room were added later. Mr. Lawrence Trickey, Jr. was the first principal.
Between 1950 and 1961 the following schools were built: 1952 -
Chase Avenue School
. This school is of brick construction. Although the original cost of brick construction is slightly more expensive, it was believed that the difference in cost would soon be offset by the lower cost of maintenance and upkeep on the building. Mr. Karl E. Nielsen was the first principal.
. Mr. J. Cline Slack was the first principal.
Cajon Valley Junior High School
(7th and 8th graders). This school opened with Mr. Norman L. Esser as the first principal. From 1941 to 1953, all 7th and 8th grade students in the district, as well as the children in grades 1-6 who lived in the immediate vicinity of the school, had attended the El Cajon School on East Main Street. All of the schools built between 1941 and 1953 had been elementary schools for grades 1-6 . In 1951, kindergartens were started in all of the elementary schools.
John Ballantyne School
. When the El Cajon junior high school opened, the buildings of the old El Cajon School on East Main Street were remodeled, eliminating the use of the front buildings as classrooms since that portion had been declared unsafe for classroom use. A new multipurpose room and administrative suite were added. The school's entrance was changed from East Main Street to Roanoke Road and the school was renamed John Ballantyne School with Mr. George T. Janecek as its first principal.
The front portion of the old El Cajon School which had been abandoned as classrooms continued to serve as a warehouse and district library. When the new library rooms were completed at the Education Center on Roanoke in 1967, the vacated frontal portion of the old El Cajon School was torn down after having served the school district for some 46 years. The stately palms and green lawn are being preserved at a small park.
For several years during the late 1940's and the 1950's El Cajon Valley's population was increasing so rapidly that was impossible for the school building program to keep up with the rapdily increasing school enrollment, and some of these years found the district schools with double sessions and, in a few instances, with some classes housed in church facilities while awaiting the completion of another school.
Johnson Avenue School
. This school was built largely with Federal Aid Funds. Mr. Perry Bosworth was the first principal.
was built up on the hill at Suncrest to serve the La Cresta and Suncrest area. Mr. Rex T. Dahms was the teaching principal the first year that the school opened.
Greenfield Junior High School
(7th and 8th grades ) was built at Greenfield Drive and Third Street in the Bostonia area and quite near the Bostonia School. For a short period of time the Greenfield Junior High housed some overflow classes for the Bostonia School. Mr. Norman L. Esser was the first principal at the Greenfield School.
was built on South First Street near Washington Avenue. Mrs. Irene Vita was the first Principal. It was from this school that she retired in June, 1966 after having served the district for 28 years- three years as a teacher in El Cajon School, 16 years as principal of the Bostonia School, and 9 years as principal of Lexington School. She had come to El Cajon Valley in 1912 with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. N. E. Liljenberg, and a sister and brother, Melva and Stanley Liljenberg. She attended and graduated from the old Meridian Grammar School and the old El Cajon High School before leaving the valley to attend a university.
Mr. Lawrence Trickey. Jr. was the first principal.
Madison Avenue School.
Mr. Perry F. Bosworth was the first principal. In addition to the regular school program as carried out in each of the district schools, Madison Avenue School has a physical therapy department in the Cerebral Palsy Unit, which serves the physically handicapped children of the entire district.
Emerald Junior High School
-(7th and 8th grades) opened in February of 1958 with Mr. Perry F. Bosworth serving as principal as well as principal of Cuyamaca School. Emerald was used for elementary classes for the balance of the school year. In 1958-59, Mr. Robert B. Davies became principal and in 1959-60, Emerald became a Junior High School with Mr. Alvin R. Bowman as
. Mr. George T. Janecek was the first principal.
Flying Hills School
also opened with Mr. Evan R. Cramer as the first principal,
Mr. Raymond R. Baker was the first principal.
- Mr. J. Cline Slack was the first principal. He served as principal for two years before returning to class room teaching and then retiring.
W.D. Hall School
opened in February, 1960 with Mrs. Mildred Stout Zinn as the principal. The school was opened on her birthday. She served as principal until she retired in June, 1965 after 37 years of service to the district as teacher, vice principal, Director of Library Services (when the district pulled away from the County Services to form their own library), and principal. She began this service in the old El Cajon School on East Main Street in the year 1928.
In 1961, the enrollment for the Cajon Valley Union School District was just a few less than 10,000 and the district had 16 elementary schools (K-6) and three junior high schools (7-8 grades). The seventeenth school, Avocado School, is currently under construction with hopes of opening in January, 1971. Mr. Cloyd A. Kitt is the principal. On September 29, 1970, the enrollment is 12,621 pupils.
El Cajon VALLEY UNION HIGH SCHOOL
El Cajon Union High School District was formed August 8, 1893. Excerpts from early El Cajon Valley News show..."1893--Pursuant to a call, the trustees of Meridian and Lakeside School Districts met at Mr. Donald's house, Tuesday, finally deciding a high school was a necessity. If established, it is probable that the Meridian School building will be used for the first year, as it is offered free of rent."
"August 26, 1893- County Supt. of Schools, Wagner, met with the trustees of Lakeside, Meridian and Cowles School Districts Thursday night at the Lakeside Hotel, and after a long discussion the high school was located in the Meridian District. The upper room of Meridian School was selected as the high school quarters for the next two years."
The El Cajon High School used the upper floor of the old Meridian School for classrooms from 1893 until 1908. Prof. J.C. Adams was the principal in the year 1893-94. At that time he was "elected to the chair of mathematics in San Diego High School" and Prof. Payne was hired as the new principal for El Cajon High.
In the year 1902, there were two graduates; in the year 1905, there was two graduates also. I (Mrs. Sperry) have no specific information as to the size of other graduating classes.
Excerpt from "Once-A-Week"~ February 23, 1899 reads: "The Meridian High School celebrated Washington's birthday with a picnic at old Mission Dam."
1908- The El Cajon Valley Union High School was built at Third and Broadway in Bostonia. It was the only high school east of San Diego High School. Irene Hall (Mrs. Rexford Hall) was a teacher in El Cajon High School during the year 1918-19. Mr. W.A. Pratt served as principal for several years prior to the 1915-16 year and Mr. J.L. Cutler served as principal for several years following.
1920- In June of 1920, the Grossmont Union High School District was formed. At that time, the El Cajon High School students joined with the Lakeside or Riverview students and attended classes at the Riverview School in Lakeside while the Grossmont High School was being constructed.
The El Cajon High School building, after being vacated by the high school, was later used as a night club. During that time (June, 1928) the building burned down. Only the foundation and a little of one wall remained.
December 13, 1920.
The lot for Grossmont High School was purchased from Col. Ed Fletcher for $10.00.
September 17, 1921.
Gradings and footings constructed.
January 13, 1923.
In the year 1922-23, the first classes were held on the new Grossmont campus. Mr. Carl Vance was the principal and Mr. Carl Quicksall was one of the teachers. In 1924, Mr. Vance resigned and Mr. Quiksall became principal.
GROSSMONT UNION HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT
June, 1920- Grossmont Union High School District was formed.
December 13, 1920, lot purchased form Col. Ed Fletcher for $10.00; September 17, 1921, gradings and footings constructed; and January 13, 1923, buildings completed.
The ivy which was used so extensively in the landscaping was obtained from Castle Rocks Ranch in El Cajon. Mr. J. M. Asher, San Diego's first florist and pioneer nurseryman (1869) and developer of Castle Rocks Ranch in 1879 had brought the ivy to Castle Rocks. It was taken to the Grossmont High School campus by the Busch boys who were among the first students to attend there and whose parents owned Castle Rocks Ranch at that time.
In the year 1922-1923, the first classes of the Grossmont Union High School were held on the new Grossmont campus. Mr. Carl Vance was the principal and Mr. Carl Quicksall, a teacher. In 1924, Mr. Quicksall became superintendent when Mr. Carl Vance resigned. In 1944, Mr. Quicksall retired and Mr. Lewis Smith became superintendent. Mr. Lewis Smith retired in 1964 and Mr. John T. Warburton took over as superintendent.
Helix High School
was built in La Mesa at 7323 University Avenue with Mr. Benton Hart as the principal.
El Cajon Valley High School
was built in El Cajon at 1035 East Madison Avenue with Mr. John Cornelius as its principal. Mr. Cornelius retired in the spring of 1969 and Mr. James R. Peace, a former teacher at that school, became the new principal.
Mount Miguel High School
was built in Spring Valley at 1800 Sweetwater Road with Mr. Melvin Grant as its principal.
El Capitan High School
was constructed in Lakeside at 10410 Ashwood (formerly part of San Diego River) with Mr. Russel Savage as principal.
Granite Hills High School
was built in El Cajon at 1719 East Madison Avenue and Mr. Phillip Morell is the principal.
Monte Vista High School
was also built in Spring Valley at 3230 Sweetwater Road with Mr. Stanley McClintic as principal.
Santana High School
was constructed in Santee at 9915 Magnolia Avenue with Mr. Robert Spencer as principal.
Grossmont's Annual Christmas Pageant was started in December of 1925 as the school's gift to the community. Mrs. Eva Quicksall was its first director.
The following is a copy of page 5 in Grossmont Union High School's annual "El Recuerdo" - Vol. 3 - 1923. This 1923 annual was published at the close of Grossmont Union High School's first year on the new campus and was dedicated to Colonel Ed Fletcher.
Grossmont Union High School
"The new Grossmont Union High School, situated upon a sightly knoll and commanding a sweeping view of El Cajon Valley and the picturesque Cuyamaca Mountains, is constructed of gray granite. With its suggestive towers, turrets, and battlements, this two story, sami-octagonal building from the rear, gives the impression of some impenetrable medieval castle where armed hordes might battle vainly before stern gates. Yet approaching it from the front, one might easily imagine that those walls and shinning windows were concealing some fairy princess; and for all that, they may - who knows?"
"The above description of our school, written by Hayden Honnell starts the imaginative powers to working and one might expect to see a horde of medieval humans occupying the structure. What one does see, however, are the boys and girls of the twentieth century busy in the school life of Grossmont. This building represents the interest and sacrifice of many people who have done a great deal to further the opportunities of the students by consolidation and one might go far to find a person who is not proud indeed of the new "Grossmont."
"The history of the school union began in 1920, when on August 14th of that year the El Cajon and Riverview High Schools consolidated with the Allison Spring Valley and Lemon Grove Grammar School districts. The Riverview High School was used in 1920 - 1921 in preference to El Cajon High School because it was larger. The first trustees of the consolidated schools were A. B. Foster (President). Mrs. Eveleen K. Bryan, Izer Davis, R. T. Robinson, Jr., and W. J. Seat. On October 4, 1920, a resolution was offered in a meeting of the trustees to call a bond election for November 5, 1920, to raise the sum of one hundred and ten thousand dollars for the new building to be eracted at Grossmont on fourteen acres of land given by Col. Ed. Fletcher. When the returns of the bond election were canvassed, it was found that a large majority were in favor of the bonds.
"On June 18, 1921, the contract for the new building was let to Young and Beer. The material for the structure was to be gray granite from the hills on Grossmont, which Colonel Ed. Fletcher furnished the contractors at the cost of getting it out. The work was to begin July 1, 1921, and to be completed in twelve months. Mr. J.W. Wiley of La Mesa was hired as the Board's inspector, and it was in part due to him that the good looking building we have was secured.
"The work was begun at the time specified, and the building was slowly erected. During the erection, The ceremony of laying the cornerstone took place on February 6, 1922, in the presence of the teachers and pupils of the high and grammar schools, and a large number of citizens.
"As the building was not completed at the time for the fall opening for school, and as it seemed that the contractors would be unable to complete it, the Board took over the finishing of the contract and with Mr. Wiley as Superintendent of Construction the building was finally completed in every detail by December. Meanwhile, however, school began on September 25, with an attendence of three hundred and twenty, which has increased up to the latter part of the school year to three hundred and fifty.
"With this brief history in mind of the facts leading up to the present school whose beauty of structure can be seen in the opposite picture, the students of Grossmont takes great pride in knowing that their school is a fitting and lasting monument to the patrons of the distract."
quote by Helen Moriarty '24
Grossmont Junior College
Grossmont Junior College District was formed in 1960.
Classes started in 1961 on the Monte Vista High School campus. The dedication of the Grossmont College on the Fletcher Hills campus took place on Sunday, December 13, 1964. Mr. Harold Hughes was the college district superintendent at that time. Mr. Hughes paid tribute to former Grossmont superintendent Lewis Smith calling him "the father of Grossmont College".
Student enrollments for the beginning of the new school year, September, 1970 are as follows:
Grossmont Union High School District - 19,017 (as of September 29, 1970)
Grossmont Junior College - 10,329 (as of September 29, 1970--for the combined day and evening classes)
Copyright 2000 Alex, Cammi, Chelsie, Cristina, Danielle, David, Josh, Kimberlyn, Lucas @ Hillsdale Middle School
All rights reserved
1 This information has been compiled by Mrs. Hazel Sperry. Notes taken in 1961 on a talk given by Mr. John Montgomery, Principal of the John Ballantyne School; notes kept through the years by the late Mrs. Josephine Asher Vecher; recollections of the school year 1870-1871 and the following early years told by Mrs. Della Hill Chase prior to her death in 1939; a paper on El Cajon Schools prepared by Mrs. Irene Hall; records information contributed by Samuel C. Hall; and excerpts from early issues of San Diego and El Cajon newspapers have been incorporated into this compilation. ...Hazel Sperry